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Nanoparticles Are Now in Everything, Including Humans

Nanotechnology, including nanosensors, are now in dust, air, rainwater, plants, soil, food, vitamins, supplements, healthcare, medicine, cosmetics, clothing, and inside the human body. Nanoparticles enter the body through inhalation, absorption into the skin, ingestion, and through medical or dental procedures.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are the most commonly produced and ingested nanomaterial. They are used in food additives, cosmetics, personal care products, and many other things at the commercial level. TiO2 NPs accumulate orally or through inhalation. We are being saturated with semiconductor particles:

"Titanium oxide (TiO2) is a material with wide applications due to its optical and electronic properties. It is used as an ingredient in sunscreen lotions and food products, as a pigment in paints and as semiconductors in the photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds."

Study of the Bandgap of Synthesized Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticules Using the Sol-Gel Method and a Hydrothermal Treatment

Nanotechnology in dust

Smart dust create networks that contain sensors, computer software, wireless communication capabilities and have their own autonomous power supply.

Nanotechnology in air

Many nanoparticles used in aerosol and sprayed into the air are dual purpose, meaning they are capable of more than one function- possible of serving more than one goal. This document on solar radiation modification aerosol spray discusses the "potential applications in biological, electronic, and quantum technologies.” 

Diamond-doped silica aerogel for solar geoengineering

 

"Expert opinion: Aerosol-based technologies can be used to design nanoparticles with the desired functionality.“

Fabrication of aerosol-based nanoparticles and their applications in biomedical fields

"In the atmosphere, nanoparticles have fundamental importance for chemical and physical processes." 

- Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research Atmopsheric Aerosol Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

 

There is a long list of nanomaterials used in weather modification/geoengineering. Some are capable of affecting the atmosphere while also building nanonetworks inside the human body. However, not all nanomaterials are self assembling once inside the body. 

 

Nanomaterials called carbon nanotubes are showing up in the lungs of children:

Anthropogenic Carbon Nanotubes Found in the Airways of Parisian Children

 

What are carbon nanotubes?

Aerosol
carbon nanotubes.jpg

"This glass capillary tube, shown here on a fingertip, has been loaded with glucose-sensitive nanotubes. The capillary tube keeps the nanotubes confined, but has porous walls so that glucose molecules can get to them."

Carbon Nanotubes Yield a New Class of Biological Sensors


Carbon NanoTube-Based Biosensors

Solar Radiation Management (SRM):

This is also known as solar engineering and involves reflecting sunlight back into space to cool the planet.

Inhaling nanoparticles as a result of Solar Radiation Modification (SRM) using stratospheric aerosol injections is discussed in the document below:

 

“Using available evidence, we describe the potential direct occupational and public health impacts of exposures to aerosols likely to be used for SRM, including environmental sulfates, black carbon, metallic aluminum, and aluminum oxide aerosols. We speculate on possible health impacts of exposure to one promising SRM material, barium titanate, using knowledge of similar nanomaterials.

Human exposures to materials used for SRM could occur during the manufacture, transportation, deployment and post-deployment of these materials. In this paper, unless otherwise stated, inhalation is the primary route of exposure considered.

Population exposures:

Due to atmospheric circulation and gravitational deposition, large-scale population exposures to atmospherically-injected SRM materials will almost certainly occur after their deployment. Population exposures could also occur through ingestion of food and water contaminated with deposited particles, as well as transdermally. Unlike occupational exposures, there has been virtually no research done to estimate ground-level personal exposures to SRM materials…

In contrast to occupational exposures, population exposures to SRM materials will be continuous and prolonged over months to years, but will likely be orders of magnitude lower than those experienced occupationally. Thus the health effects will be primarily chronic in nature. The use of PPE to reduce personal exposures to deposited SRM materials is not feasible on a population scale."

Assessing the direct occupational and public health impacts of solar radiation management with stratospheric aerosols

Nanoparticles Sulfur dioxide (SiO2) and Silicon dioxide (SiO2) as precursors in aircraft aerosol us in Solar Radiation Modification (SRM):

Nano in air.jpeg

Nanoparticles in cloud brightening:

This Scientific American article linked below about the same project reads, “The experiment is spraying microscopic salt particles into the air…” Note their misleading use of the word ‘microscopic’. 

Researcher Pete Ramón points out:

“Microscale can never be nanoscale in terms of measurement. When non-scientific authors use micro- to describe nano- they're wrong, but when scientists in the field use micro- to describe nano-, it's intentionally misleading/confusing the reader. That said, nanomaterials can be coagulated/agglomerated/grown to create micro-sized materials. Also, creating nanomaterials from micro can also be done via techniques such as ablation and sonication.”

Geoengineering Test Quietly Launches Salt Crystals into Atmosphere (2024)

This article linked below reads, “Developing a new cloud-aerosol research instrument for use in small-scale field studies. This new research instrument generates controlled volumes and sizes of tiny, sub-micrometer seawater particles in sufficient numbers to increase the local brightness of low clouds in a marine environment"

Researcher Pete Ramón points out their use of the word “sub-micrometer” means by definition that it is nanoscale. If it’s in the nanoscale, we are talking about nanoparticles. Specifically, nanoparticles being released into the sky.

Marine Cloud Brightening Program

 

Salt particles ranging in size from 30-100 nanometers are the most effective for spraying. 

“Factors determining the most efficient spray distribution for marine cloud brightening”

Nanoparticles in cloud seeding:

 

Water molecules in the atmosphere are too small to combine on their own to form cloud droplets. To form condensation, they need something larger to condense on (preferably flatter surface and at least one micrometer in size). That’s where cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) come in, otherwise known as cloud seeds.

 

Cloud seeds, or cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), are created by new particle formation (NPF), which are created by even smaller particles forming together.

 

“Nucleation” sums up this process, where extremely small aerosol particles form larger particles in the sky. 

 

The scale of nucleation in the atmosphere ranges in the pico-/nano- scale of measurement. NPF may sometimes begin as tiny as picoparticles, build into nanoparticles, then cluster into bigger microparticles.

 

Atmospheric nanoparticles are referred to as Aitken nuclei by The American Meteorological Society (named after John Aitken).

 

Aerosol for geo

Plasmonics in aerosols:

What is plasmonics?

Ship Tracks:

Nanoparticles from sea vessels are released into the air in the form of “ship tracks”, streaks of clouds from shipping emissions that can reach several miles wide and several hundred miles long. 

ship tracks.jpeg

“‘Ship tracks' above the northern Pacific Ocean. These patterns are produced when fine particles from ship exhaust float into a moist layer of atmosphere. The particles seed new clouds or attract water from existing cloud particles. Image taken by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA’s Aqua satellite on July 3, 2010.” Quote and image credit

Fuel additives

Nanoparticles in the form of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), and metal oxides such as cerium oxide (CeO2) are used in fuel additives for internal combustion engines in planes, buses and ships. This is another example of dual purpose technology. The nanoparticles in fuel combustion release nanoparticles in the exhaust.

 

Nanoparticle Fuel Additives:

 

Sulfur as a fuel additive to create aerosol in planes is discussed here. "Options for dispersing gases from planes include the addition of sulfur to the fuel, which would release the aerosol through the exhaust system of the plane, or the attachment of a nozzle to release the sulfur from its own tank within the plane, which would be the better option.”

Benefits, risks, and costs of stratospheric geoengineering

Nanotechnology in rainwater

Nanotechnology in plants

 

Nanotechnology in farming

Nanofarming, precision farming, smart farming, plant nanobionics, and other such trends all incorporate the use of nanotechnology, including some “organic” farming:

Nanotechnology in food

This is one way it enters your body. Nanoparticles can breach the blood-brain barrier.

The FDA has approved the oxide semiconductors Oxide, Titanium Dioxide, Anatole Titanium Dioxide, and Rutile Zinc Oxide as food additives. When these are ingested, humans become the semiconductor as these enhance the body’s conductivity. More on this here.

Nanotechnology in soft drinks

"Foodborne nanoparticles (NPs) have drawn great attention due to human health concerns. This study reports the detection of the presence of fluorescent NPs, about 5 nm, in two of the most popular beverages, Coca-Cola (Coke) and Pepsi-Cola (Pepsi). The NPs contain H, C and O, [three elements with a tunable emission] and with a quantum yield of 3.3 and 4.3% for Coke and Pepsi, respectively. The presence of sp3-hybridized carbon atoms [carbon quantum dots] of alcohols and ethers bonds was confirmed by NMR analysis…The biodistribution study in major organs indicated that the NPs [nanoparticles] were easily accumulated in the digestive tract, and they were able to cross the blood-brain barrier and dispersed in the brain."

Nanotechnology in vitamins

Nanotechnology in Nutraceuticals

Nanotechnology in Nootropics

Nanotechnology in tobacco

Nanotechnology in healthcare

Biomedical and healthcare applications relating to the Internet of Bio-Nano-Things (IoBNT) are discussed in the video below, such as floating nanosensors in the bloodstream that eavesdrop on molecular communication and report to devices outside of the body. The connecting of electronic and implantable devices such as brain implants, smart glasses, cardiac pacemakers, gastric stimulators, smart watches, insulin pumps, foot drop implants, and smart shoes with biological devices including artificial organs, engineered immune system cells, engineered gut microbes, and engineered tissue for regenerative medicine are also talked about.
The video also discusses how remotely controllable nanobots operate in the body, using nanotechnology and MEMS to engineer cells into biosensors, communication using Molecular Communication (MC), the making of “biological computers”, engineering the DNA of bacteria to create processors, and injecting memories into living cells by encoding the DNA of bacteria.

Dr. Bige Deniz Unluturk- Molecular Communication Platforms at Multiple Scales (video)

Equipment:

3D bioprinting is used in the making of healthcare equipment (face masks, face shields, rapid detection kits, testing swabs, biosensors, and various ventilator components):

 

Injections:

Covid-19 shots contain self assembling nanotechnology. This is well documented and will be only touched on briefly given the large scope of this subject.

The Covid shots were created utilizing 3D bioprinting with programmable shape-shifting nanotechnology enabled smart materials. See more here.

Nano in Food
Healthcare

Other routes of injecting nanotech are talked about by Professor Ian Akyıldız. He discusses injecting remotely programable nano machines to help fight disease, complete with gateways and bio cyber interfaces with two way communication.

Science and Society Meetings - XI, Prof. Dr. İlhan Fuat Akyıldız, Georgia University

Nanobots that self replicate are used in chemotherapy, “vaccines”, gene therapy, and more:

 

Nano pharmacology/Nanomedicine:

The following two lectures describe ways in which nanoparticles enter human cells in relation to pharmacology:

 

Iron oxide nanoparticles can be introduced into the body through medicine. The following discuss medical applications of iron oxide in relation to pharmacology:

Iron Oxide and Gold Based Magneto-Plasmonic Nanostructures for Medical Applications: A Review

 

"Plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) are one of the most promising and studied inorganic nanomaterials for different biomedical applications… Herein, we review recently reported bioconjugated plasmonic NPs using different chemical approaches and loading cargoes (such as drugs, genes, and proteins) for enhancement of transdermal delivery across biological tissues.”

Bioconjugated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Enhanced Skin Penetration

Homeopathy as Nanomedicine, Ayurvedice Nanomedicine, and Allopathic Nanomedicine, Nanoparticle herbs:

Traditional and alternative medicines are now being used in nanoparticle form, and may be included under the category of nano pharmacology. 

Orthopedic implants:

Traditional orthopedic implants now include nanotechnology. Specifically, implantable sensors- a variation of Internet or Bio-Nano-Things (IoBNT). 4D bioprinting is utilized. 

 

The Homeland Defense & Security Information Analysis Center (HDIAC), which is part of the U.S. Department of Defense’s Information Analysis Center (IAC), talks about implantable nano sensors in the following webinar:

HDIAC Webinar - Bringing the Hospital to the Patient: Advances in Implantable Nano Sensors

 

Dr. Tom Webster, professor of chemical engineering at Northeastern University, talks more about implantable nano sensors in this brief video: 

HDIAC podcast- Nano Sensors

Nanotechnology in Dentistry 

Dental implants:

Nanotechnology in cosmetics

Many types of nanomaterials are found in cosmetics in increasing levels. They can absorb into the body from the skin.

Nanotechnology in clothing and fabrics

Nanotechnology in everything

Nonetechnology exists now in nearly everything now - that’s their goal - to connect EVERYTHING. 

Internet of Everything (IoE) - From Molecules to the Universe by Murat Kuscu

Medicine
Cosmetics
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